Журнал «Проблемы истории, филологии, культуры» №3, 2015

















The Representation of Poleis in the Government Bodies of the Achaean League

S. K. Sizov

According to Polybius (2. 38. 8) all poleis of the Achaean League enjoyed full equality in all respects. However, a prosopographical analysis shows that representatives of a quite limited range of communities played the leading role in the political life of the Federation. Nevertheless, the Achaean League elaborated some means that allowed the citizens of the other cities to take part in political activities of the league, including the use to a certain extent of the principle of proportional representation in composition of the federal bodies (a good example is the board of nomographoi).

Key words: the Ancient Greece, the Achaean league, federation, proportional representation, nomographoi

Interpretation of the Literary Work in Dionysius of Halicarnassus’ “On Thucydides”

O. V. Osipova

In the article, the methods of interpretation of the literary work in Dionysius of Halicarnassus’ On Thucydides are discussed. In his treatises, Dionysius of Halicarnassus analyses the content and style of the speeches and historical writings of the 5th — 4th centuries BC from the point of view of contemporary rhetoric, aimed at fi nding sample-sources which are suitable for imitation. He estimates Thucydides’ History in accordance with the virtues of style (ἀρεταί) and points out the compositional and stylistic defects, using methods of comparison and transposition, the latter of which implies different ways of referring to the text as well as the use of other intertextual elements. Having listed defects, Dionysius of Halicarnassus sometimes also explains the reason for their appearance.

Key words: Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Thucydides, rhetoric, interpretation of the text, literary work

Overthrow of Tarquinii

Yu. B. Tsirkin

On the basis of narrative traditions purity (despite some folk details), the article considers the history of the overthrow of Tarquinius and the establishment of the Republic in Rome. The overthrow of the monarchy was the result of a conspiracy in the most “top” of society, and the cause was the strong dissatisfaction of the aristocracy with the sole reign of Tarquinius the Proud. This event fi ts well into the General direction of the political struggle in the Central Mediterranean.

Key words: Roma, Tarquinii, monarchy, republic, consuls, aristocracy

First Sumptuary Laws in View of Social and Political Evolution of Roman Republic in the 3rd century BC

V. A. Kvashnin

The author makes an attempt to link the increased legislative activity concerning the adoption of several laws about luxury of the plebeian tribunes with the social and political changes in the Roman Republic in the 3rd century BC. The main content of this period is the completion of the formation of the basic institutions of the Roman civitas, coincided with a successful military expansion of Rome in Italy and abroad. Special attention is paid to changes in the ruling political class of Rome. The author shows that the transformation of the political elite of Rome was reflected in the laws of that period.

Key words: Roman Republic, leges sumptuariae, Hannibalic War, civitas, plebeian tribunate, Roman senate, plebescitum

Two Greek Inscriptions with Roman Names from Delos at the Turn of the 80–70s BC: Who Was Titus Manlius?

V. V. Dementieva

The author analyzes two Greek inscriptions from Delos which are simultaneous and closed in content. One of them contains the name of proquaestor Manius Aemilius Lepidus, another one contains the name of Titus Manlius, but his title in this inscription had not survived. These inscriptions are considered in comparison with each other and with another founded in Delos inscriptions mentioning Romans who hold the post of proquaestor: one of them is Greek, it contains name Publius (it is saved praenomen only), another inscription is Latin, it contains name Lucullus. The author offers to reconstruct the lost word in the inscription of Titus Manlius homage as ἀντιταμίαν, and to defi ne him also as a proquaestor. The article explains the Roman proquaestors presence on Delos which was returned to Athens by Rome.

Key words: Delos, inscriptions, proquaestor, Titus Manlius

The Reasons for the Changes of Equipment of the Romans during the 3rd — 1st Centuries AD

V. Bannikov

For centuries, the heavy infantry was the main part of the Roman army. However the evolution of military affairs of the enemies of the Roman Empire caused major changes in the Roman battle tactics in the 2nd century AD. The phalanx became the main type of the formation of the legion. The change in tactics had a direct impact on the weapons of the legionaries. As a result, some defi nite kinds of weapons considered to be traditional for the Roman army, were abandoned in the fi rst half from the 3ndcentury AD.

Key words: The Roman Empire, legion, the heavy infantry, the phalanx, pilum, lance, spata

Christian Persecutions and Imperial Cult According to the Early Hagiographical Tradition

A. D. Panteleev

Analyzing the causes of anti-Christian persecution and the legal framework of persecution ones pointed often to the non-participation of Christians in the Imperial cult. Basing on the early cases of martyrdom material, requirements to sacrifi ce to the emperor or to swear by his name during the trials are considered in the article. Analyzing the data in tradition the author comes to a conclusion that there were no special laws requiring Christians to honor the emperor, and at requirements of worship Caesars they were not marked out among the other gods. Sometimes the proposal to swear in the name of Caesar was an attempt to make a compromise on the part of the Roman authorities. However, the Christians had some reasons to complain of harassment in connection with the imperial cult because executions of martyrs were confi ned to the holiday in honor of the emperor, Christians were persecuted because of the refusal to offer sacrifice to Caesar prescribed governors or emperors or swear by the genius of the emperor

Key words: Roman Empire, Imperial Cult, Early Christianity, Persecutions, Hagiography

New Finds of Akanthian Amphorae and Amendments to their Typology and Chronology

S. Yu. Monakhov

The stamps of the Halkidian polis of Akanth were localized a little more than 10 years ago. The whole forms of amphorae have recently become known. New fi nds of Akanthian amphorae from the Northern Black Sea Coast allow to found the fi rst typology of ceramic packaging of this polis.

Key words: acanthus, amphorae, ceramic stamps

Excavated Delakeu Amphorae from the Mangup Settlement

O. S. Yashnaya

The article analyzes Delakeu amphorae from the Mangup Settlement. Such vessels are dated to the mid. 4th — 5th /early 6th centuries AD. They appeared at the Mangup Settlement in the second half of the 4th century AD and they were most actively used in the next century. These amphorae were produced in Demerji (Sinope). The Mangup fi nds are the evidence of trade contacts between the barbarian population of the South-Western Crimea and the Byzantine Empire via a short sea route from Sinope to Chersonesus, and then to Mangup. Sinope wine was the main product transported by means of these amphorae.

Key words: Mangup, Delakeu amphorae, date

New Data about the Chora of Kalos Limen

T. N. Smekalova, V. A. Kutaysov, R. S. Ketsko

Chersonesian settlements and land plots located on Heracleian Peninsula and in the Northwestern Crimea are the most important sources to study the social and economic life of Chersonesos. Recent multidisciplinary research of the traces of land cadastre of Kalos Limen (Chersonesian administrative center of the 4th — 2nd centuries BC) allows to draw important conclusions on the form of ownership of the land, the dimensions of civil allotment, the organization of agricultural land, agrotechnical methods of growing crops, changes in the proportion of viticulture and grain growing in the Late Hellenism.

Key words: Northwestern Crimea, ancient economy, polis and chora, Chersonesos, Kalos Limen

The Southern Section Saltovo-Mayaki Settlement on the Site of Fortified Settlement Artesian (Studies in Excavation II)

N. I. Vinokurov, L. Y. Ponomarev

The article analyzes the materials of excavations of the southern section Saltovo-Mayaki settlement, located on the site of fortifi ed settlement Artesian. Among detected at the site of the early medieval complexes dominated pits formed as a result of extraction of stone from ancient buildings. Besides these unearthed two stone buildings, pits half-dugouts, household pits and dirt grave. Some of them are able to be divided into two chronological periods, a landmark date for which provisionally accepted the middle of the 9th century.

Key words: Kerch Peninsula, Artesian, Saltovo-Mayaki settlement

The Chronology and Periodization of Artezian Settlement in the Middle Ages (Early Byzantine Period)

N. I. Vinokurov, L. Y. Ponomarev

The article deals with an amphora and a silver fi bula of 6th — 7th centuries AD, found at the ancient settlement of Artesian and in its necropolis. One had nod been able to discover synchronous residential horizons and funerary complexes. However, as far as the site is not completely investigated; hence authors concede there was a small early Byzantine settlement at its territory.

Key words: Kerch Peninsula, Artesian, amphora, fi bula, early Byzantine period

Phanagorian Sacral Complexes of 6th — 1st centuries BC: Classification Aspects

Yu. N. Kuzmina

In the article an attempt to classify the sacred complexes of Phanagoria of VI–I BC is made. Basing on the analogy with the known contemporary classifi cations for regions of the Ancient Greece following types of sanctuaries have been defi ned for Phanagoria: regional sanctuaries; urban sanctuaries (situated on the acropolis; situated into the town walls, but not on the acropolis); suburban sanctuaries.

Key words: North Pontic Region, Phanagoria, sanctuaries, classification

Sarmatian-Germanic Contacts in the Crimean Foothill Area (based on Glassware)

S. B. Shabanov

Various categories of artefacts of the Germanic origin discovered in the Crimea have repeatedly attracted the attention of researchers. There are special studies discussing ornaments, ceramic ware, and weapons from the cemeteries in the foothill and mountainous areas in the Crimea. Scholarly tradition relates some of the glass vessels found there with the migration of tribes of Germanic circle, though others probably formed elements of Roman import. Some categories of glass vessels were formerly not interpreted as indicators of Germanic presence. In the article the author focuses on specifi c categories of glass vessels and the way they could get to the Crimean foothill area.

Key words: the Sarmatians, the Germans, the Crimea, Late Roman Period, glassware

Andronovo Ritual Complexes with the Inverted Vessels: Comparative Description and Interpretation

S. V. Sotnikova

This article discusses Andronovo ritual complexes containing vessels that were turned bottom up. The fi ndings in the graves and sacrifi cial complexes are characterized separately, its interpretation is given. Inverted vessels in burials were probably a part of a magic ritual of disease expulsion (Sintashta, Alakul complexes), the departure of the soul-shadow to the lower world (Fedorovka). In some sacrifi cial complexes an inverted vessel was placed in the center of the composition, that, apparently, was the part of the ritual actions of cosmogonic character.

Key words: Bronze Age, Sintashta, Alakul, Fedorovka burials, sacrifi cial complexes, inverted vessel, ritual

From the History of Research of Archaeological Monuments in the Outskirts of Sikachi-Alyan and Malyshevo Villages (Khabarovsk Region)

A. R. Laskin

In recent years, as a part of preservation of historical and cultural monuments as well as the RGNF research project (№ 14-01-00453 (a)), the data on the case of Sikachi-Alyan petroglyphs has been signifi cantly added. The analysis of petroglyphs chronology forces to address to the materials revealed in this district, and history of its archaeological studying.

Key words: archeology of the Far East, petroglyphs, petroglyphic art

Imported Roman and Byzantine Silver Goods in the Volga and Kama Region (based on Materials of Archeological Complexes from the 1st century BC to 5th — 6th centuries AD)

A. V. Bezrukov

Silver ware is represented by numerous imported items found under archeological research or by chance. The article is based on the products of artistic crafts of Rome and Byzantium discovered in Cisurals, the Kama and the Volga Rivers Region. Tanais is indicated as the most probable source of imported precious items of Roman origin. These goods were brought to Tanais from the largest cities of Bosporus — Panticapaeum and Phanagoria via the transit trade. A large group of Byzantine silver vessels found in the Kama region and Cisurals contains a great number of items of various types, shapes and themes of images. Therefore, the majority of Byzantine silver vessels reached the Volga and the Kama region and Cisurals via both the land and the river trade routes from Transcaucasia along the Volga and the Kama rivers during a relatively short time span (second half of the 5th — middle of the 7th century AD).

Key words: Roman and Byzantine silver vessels, Panticapaeum, Tanais, silver and bronze ceremonial utensils, diplomatic gifts, Kama region and Cisurals, Byzantine silver vessels, land trade roads

Christian Burials of the Golde Horde Times in the Low Volga Region

D. V. Vasiliev

Christianity in the Golden Horde was studied mainly due to the analysis of written sources. Archaeological evidence of the presence of Christians in the Jochi Ulus is scarce. Only two necropolises with authentically Christian burials are known. The Christian cemetery of Vodyanskoe settlement is the most studied. Burials of this necropolis are comparable with medieval Russian graves. The only burial with silver cross was found at the necropolis «Mayachny Bugor». It belongs to the representative of the serving nobility of Jochi Ulus of the 13th century.

Key words: «Mayachny Bugor» Necropolis, Vodyanskoe Settlement, Golden Horde, Christianity, death customs

The Arabic Geographer of the 9th Century Ibn Khordadbeh and the Command Structure of Byzantine Army Opsikion: the Case of Count Varaz-Bakur

E. A. Mekhamadiev

The Arabic Geographer Ibn Khordadbeh who lived in the 9th century left to his descendants the profound geographic treatise “The Book of Roads and Kingdoms”. In this work he enumerated thoroughly the evidence about Byzantine provinces and military forces which were quartered in each region of Byzantine Empire. All the provinces mentioned by Ibn Khordadbeh held the status of themes — the military-administrative districts, in which all the power (both military and civilian) was united into the hands of strategos, a governor of the theme. But the armies which were installed within the themes (territorial districts) had been established long before “The Book of Ways and Countries” was published. There is a question, whether the themes enumerated by Ibn Khordadbeh existed during the earlier period of time and if it is possible to talk about the planned and elaborated theme reform aimed at the establishment of militaryadministrative districts? To answer this question the author turns to the case of one of these armies, more precisely, the so-called Opsikion, which stood at the north-west of Asia Minor. In the frameworks of Opsikion-subject the author paid the main attention to the military career and (that is more important) ethnic origin of Opsikion’s commander known as Varaz-Bakur/Barasbakurios. This general headed the forces of Opsikion-army at the beginning of the 8th century, so, the author of this paper concludes that on the ground of evidence about Varaz-Bakur/Barasbakurios’ military-political activity we can trace the differences between the status and character of Opsikion-army’s development during a long period of the early 8th — the first third of the 9th century AD. The conclusions made on the ground of Opsikion-case can clarify the structure and development of other Byzantine regional armies.

Key words: Ibn Khordadbeh, byzantine themes, Varaz-Bakur, the Georgian kingdom of Kartli, patrician, Justinian II, lead seals, strategos

The Saknikte Dynasty in the Context of Vassal Relations with Kanul State

S. V. Vepretskiy

The article analyzes the political history of Saknikte (archaeological site La Corona), the ancient Mayan city, that was a capital of a small polity, subordinated by the Kanul state. Inscriptions from La Corona indicate that local dynasty had the title sak wahyis or k’uhul sak wahyis, but didn’t have its own emblem glyph (k’uhul Ɂajaw title). Apparently, this polity could be called “lordship”, its territory was a part of the Kanul state. We can say that this lordship occupied a privileged position for Kanul. It was expressed in a large amount of monuments, established by local rulers. Besides there were exogamous marriage ties between Kanul and Saknikte spanning two centuries. An advantageous geographical location of La Corona could be the reasons for this privileged position.

Key words: the Maya, political organization, La Corona, Saknikte, Kanul, Calakmul, Snake kingdom

Mesoamerican Pre-Columbian Pigments and Dyes According to Multidisciplinary Studies

E. A. Greshnikov

The paper makes a brief introduction to the use of different dyeing plants and pigments in Central American cultures for textile, polychrome vessels and fi gurines. An important role of red cinnabar is known from the elite burial practice. The use of organic substances and complex colorants with mixture of organic and non-organic components is described. The most important example is famous Mesoamerican «Maya Blue» pigment composed of natural indigo and clay mineral palygorskite, that resulted in production of yellow and green colorants as well. Mineral pigments were produced from ochre, hematite, and cinnabar. Pre-Hispanic dyes and pigments were analyzed by microscopy, spectroscopy, X-ray fl uorescence, Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, chromatography, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, etc.

Key words: Mesoamerican archaeology, pigments, dyes, multidisciplinary analyses in archaeology

Some Issues of Legal Regulation of Mobilization in Selected Corps of Russian Empire Border Guards

V. A. Parsukov

On the basis of the analysis of some provisions of the regulations regulating mobilization activity in the Separate case of boundary guards of the Russian Empire at the beginning of the XX century the role and a place of the last in wars and armed confl icts is shown.

Key words: Separate case of boundary guards, legal regulation, boundary supervision, mobilization activity, war

Japan in the Soviet Reality: the Image of the Country in the Soviet Periodical Press (1956–1985)

Ya. D. Galimova

The most typical structural components of the image of Japan are analyzed in this research which is based on various materials of the Soviet periodical press. The relevance of the study is determined not only by the problematics of the native historical imagology but also by specifi city of the period under the study and the subject of the research. The normalization of the relationship between the USSR and Japan, a specifi c level of the social life deideologization, a partial diversion from a range of narrow class Stalin`s dogmata in foreign policy contributed to the development of the conditions to form a new image of Japan. At the same time the class approach prevailed in the evaluation of a number of the events. The issues between the countries were discussed on the basis of Soviet-Japanese–American relationship.

Key words: Japan, Soviet society, the Soviet periodical press

‘‘A Man of Great Soul” — US President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s appraisal of Stalin I. V.

N. S. Frolova

The article deals with the issue of the image reconstruction of the US president — FD Roosevelt made by the Soviet leader Stalin I.V. Therefore, the evolution of the image due to the influence of the military-political conditions and ideologies is analyzed. The author grounds the statement that the position of the Soviet leader during the Great Patriotic War, on foreign policy was dominant for the authorities and society in general, and the image of the head of a state partner in the anti-Hitler coalition became a projection of a negative or positive experience of relations between the USSR and the USA.

Key words: international relations, diplomatic relations between the USSR and the USA, the image of an ally, ideologies, military-political conditions, the propaganda the installation

History of Formation and Activities of Workers’ Faculties in Bashkiria

E. D. Khadimullina, R. R. Khadimullin

After October Revolution young people from workers’ and peasants’ families got an opportunity to be educated in the institutions. However, many of them had so poor knowledge that it prevented them from entering or studying at universities. To solve this important problem workers’ faculties (Rabfaks) were established. They had to get the youth ready for studies at the institutions in the record time. This article reveals the role and signifi cance of Rabfaks in the preparation of the youth for their studies at universities.

Key words: October Revolution, Bashkiria, youth, workers’ faculty, higher education

The Dynamics of the Chuvash Settlements in the Republic of Bashkortostan

V. V. Medvedev

One of the criteria for the study of rural settlements is numerical indicators. The statistical material on the number of households and residents indicate socio-economic development, the typology, and the ethnic representatives of the village. The published data and archival material makes it possible to trace the development of the Chuvash settlements in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Comparative and historical comparison indicates evolution processes in the villages in the space-time.

Key words: the Chuvash people, dynamics, population, statistics, settlement, homestead

Traditional Construction House of the Chuvash of Republic Bashkortostan

V. V. Medvedev

Residential building of the Chuvash of the Republic of Bashkortostan had their own constructional features, expressed in typology, materials of construction, size and method of building. Central place belonged to a wooden frame, represents the future of home. Frame installed on the foundation or directly on the ground. It covers a variety of the type of construction and roofing materials.

Key words: Chuvash, house, frame, foundation, roofi ng, building materials

Women’s Age-Related and Physiological Groups and Their Range in the Culture of Coastal Chukchi

V. V. Golbtseva, A. A. Yarzutkina

Women’s age-related and physiological groups and their range within the cultural context of the Chukchi living in coastal settlements of the Chukotka Peninsular were denoted and described in this article, based on fi eld ethnographic materials. For each group of culturally important ages the Chukchi’s terminology is presented. Comparing women and men’s age classifi cations the authors come to a conclusion that the principles of age group division within men and women are different, and their numbers do not match. The range of age divisions within women’s age classifi cation are as follows: physiological changes and development/extinction of reproductive function. The main characteristics of passing from one age category to another within men’s group are the ability to take part in fishing/ pastoral and arable farming activity, economical independence and knowledge on the range of subjects about the world around.

Key words: ethnography, traditional culture, age classifi cation, gender roles, the Coastal Chukchi

Antiquity Masks: Aristophanes

Ye. A. Lomakina

The article explores the origin, development and importance of masks on the example of Antiquity masks of Aristophanes, Menander and other antic authors. Masks are regarded as artistic and at the same time, the stage means of expression of the author’s ideas on the one hand, and as the outer, display of images on the other.

Key words: Antiquity, masks, artistic means, Aristophanes, Menander

“Blessed is the One Who ...” in the Russian Poetry of the 18th — the 19th Centuries: a History of the Poetic Formula

T. Ye. Abramzon

“Blessed is the one who ...” is one of the most popular poetic formulas in the Russian poetry of the modern times, its popularity is related to the enlightenment pursuit of happiness. The article traces the history of the formula in the Russian poetry, the main stages of which are the inheritance of psalms’ formula and the initial formula of ancient poems, the development of individual concepts in the framework proposed by the precedent texts, parody interpretations and the original concepts of bliss. Over a hundred years of the formula’s existence in the Russian poetry — from the 1730-s to the 1830-s — the concept of bliss found two opposite conceptions: enjoyment of the idyllic tranquility (Horatian ideal) and enjoyment of the fatal proximity of death (Pushkin’s-Tyutchev’s concept).

Key words: Enlightenment, pursuit of happiness, bliss, poeticism “Blessed is the one who ...”, the Russian poetry of the 18th — the 19th centuries

Novels by V. Sorokin of 2000-s: Between Postmodernism and Modernism

M. V. Bezrukavaya

This article analyzes three novels by V. Sorokin: «Bro’s Way», «Day of the Oprichnik», «Telluriya» written between postmodernism and modernism. Each novel is examined from genre and methodological point of view; shows V. Sorokins’s style as an author: implicit laughter, absence of positive hero, the characters’ ambivalence. The general motive of V. Sorokin’s prose is food, drugs, ice / snow. The novel “Tellurium” is the main text for the analysis, as it was written at the edge of postmodernism and modernism, which fully explains the title of the article.

Key words: ambivalent confl ict, irony, sarcasm, postmodernism, modernism

Methods of Reframing of the Extended Metaphor on the Example of the Contemporary British Authors

I. A. Gevorkyan

The article analyses the extended metaphor from the point of view of its methods of reframing. This kind of metaphor is mostly created by fi ction authors with the help of other figures of speech: hyperbole, simile, irony and so on. The study of the examples of the extended metaphor in the novels by the contemporary British authors in the original language allows us to defi ne the main methods of reframing of this trope, i.e. which fi gures of speech are most frequently used in the process of forming an extended metaphor.

Key words: extended metaphor, methods of reframing, hyperbole, litotes, antithesis

Interlingual Transfer of Personal Names through the Prism of the Connotative Aspect of the Semantics

O. V. Kisel’, Zh. N. Zarutskaya

The article discusses the issue of interlingual transfer of personal names. This process is considered to be complex and multifaceted. It has been educed that in interlingual transferring of personal names many linguistic and extra-linguistic factors should be taken into account, since this process is designed to link a native speaker as the subject of extra-linguistic reality with the linguistic sign such as a personal onym.

Key words: personal names, onyms, connotative aspect of semantics, interlingual transfer of personal name, linguistic and extra- linguistic factors

Etymology of Russian Compounds: Restoration of Lost Meanings

I. Yu. Pashkeeva

The article is devoted to the history of origin (etymology) of compound words of the Russian language which are used in everyday life. The paper highlights the original meanings of words that were undergone changes due time and lost their ability to express images. Unlike the most common trend to study compounds from the point of view of their morphological structure and syntactic relations between components, the article is focused on the little- studied aspect — stylistic properties of compound words, namely their ability to function as expressive means.

Key words: etymology, compound words, word meaning, stylistic properties, expressive means

On the Functional Divergence of the 18th century Promemoriya, Terms’ Competition And Regional Intra-Genre Transformations

S. V. Rusanova

The paper is based on the case study of the 18th century promemoriya. It examines a functional divergence of formal language genre, terms’ competition, genre and stylistic peculiarities which are found in the regional business writing.

Key words: business genre of the 18th century, promemoriya, functional divergence, terms’ competition

Functioning of Language Units in the Aspect of National Cultural Identity (Based on Emotive Vocabulary of Russian and Tajik Languages)

S. M. Tiploeva

Within the bounds of anthropocentric linguistics, verbalization of emotions is of a great interest. The present study is an attempt to view emotive vocabulary through the prism of metaphoric ap proach. The given approach is based upon a number of con ceptual metaphors dealing with the emotive vocabulary. The present article expands on the ways of representing negative emotions with the help of so matic lexicon in the Russian and Tajik perception of the world. Not only external manifestations of emotions in the language by way of somatic lexicon are represented but also a person’s internal state. The common spectrum of a person’s negative emotions and states is diverse and marked by eth nic specifi city. The universal and national semantic features of these units in the two languages have been described and classified.

Key words: human being, emotion, cognition, human reasoning, metaphor, conceptualization, concrete, abstract

Slogans as the Means of Verbalization of Concepts “War” and “Death” in the V. P. Astafi ev’s Novel “The Damned and Killed”

A. А. Osipova

Soviet slogans, used by V. P. Astafi ev in his novel “The Damned and Killed”, are aimed to reflect the author’s attitude to ideology, political directions of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The author’s aim is — to overthrow false ideas about the Great Patriotic War, imposed by the Soviet propaganda. The slogans in the novel oppose to biblical expressions which carry the only genuine meaning.

Key words: V. P. Astafi ev, Soviet slogans, biblical expressions, concepts “War” and “Death”

Detective and Spy-Novel: “Cellar” Model of Genre Forming

M. V. Norets

“Cellar” model of genre forming, offered by the author looks like the dynamic relations between genre matrix and genre dominant, the results of which is the forming of a new genre. Changes in genre matrix are infl uenced by many outer factors. The accumulation of the dynamic features of genre dominant gives the possibility for forming the new genre. Under the influence of historic, political, social, literary factors the genre matrix of detective novel undergoes some certain processes inside, which give the reason for the changes dictated by the time, gaining new features in the genre dominant. When the amount of changes in the genre dominant becomes more than the amount of genre paradigm of the detective genre, the genre dominant of the detective novel gets separated and becomes a new genre matrix, the matrix of the spy novel. The
author of the article presents the “cellar” model of genre forming where the mechanism of genre transformation is highlighted. In the article, the scheme of genre matrix and genre dominant as well as the genre matrix of a new genre are presented.

Key words: “Cellar” model of genre forming, genre forming, detective novel, spy novel

The Terminology of Spiritual Kinship Refl ected in Slavonic Monuscripts of the 11th — the 14th centuries

D. W. Zhigulina

The author uses materials of religious Slavonic texts of the 11th — the 14th centuries and some historical dictionaries to identify the specifi city of orthodox metaphorics connected with the family sphere. She concludes that the terminology of spiritual kinship used in East Slavonic manuscripts shows close connection with the terminology of blood kinship and marriage.

Key words: family, spiritual kinship, semantics, lexemes, set phrases

The History of Formation of Lexical-Semantic Field ‘‘Religion’’ in the Romance Languages (Based on Spanish and French Languages)

K. I. Nentsova

The paper is devoted to cross-language analysis of the religious fragment of the linguistic picture of the world of Spanish and French on the material of the lexico-semantic field “Religion”. Idioethnical features of the lexical level of the languages in question are revealed by comparative and etymological analysis of selective lexemes, as well as synonymous lexemes, where semantic nuances, recorded in entries and phraseology, are explained by differences in the choice of etymons.

Key words: lexeme, lexical-semantic fi eld, language picture of the world, etymon

The Influence of Chinese and Japanese Art on the Soviet Painting and Drawing of 1920s — 1930s

A. I. Strukova

Article is devoted to the Far Eastern infl uence in Soviet painting and drawing of two pre-World War II decades. The interest in the art of China and Japan was associated with direct cultural contacts of these countries with the Soviet Union, including active exhibition functioning. The infl uence was mutual and implemented the widest range of genres from book illustration to monumental murals. The recourse to formal receptions and original imagery of Far Eastern art enriched the language of Soviet painting and drawing, contributed to the fl ourishing of the last one. The specifi c use of this artistic experience of the Soviet art, as well as some striking examples of its successful assimilation is in the focus of the author.

Key words: Japonism, Sino-Soviet cultural relations, N. F. Lapshin, V. M. Konashevych

Commentary on the E. V. Rtveladze's article "ΔΑΡΕΝΗΣ ΆΤΡΟΠΌΝ: the Route of Byzantine embassy of Zymarch in Middle Asia and Caucasus”, PIFK 1 (2015), 354–364

O. Kh. Bgazhba

Revue on the E. V. Rtveladze's book “The Great Indian Road. From the History of the most important Eurasian Trade Roads”. Sankt-Petersburg, 2012. – 295 p

G. A. Koshelenko, V. A. Gaibov