E. A. Miklashevich (Kemerovo) — Estampages of the Amur Petroglyphs from A.P. Okladnikov’s Expedition in 1935

The paper presents for the fi rst time a collection of the so-called estampages (copies made of papier mache), which were reproduced by Alexey P. Okladnikov from some of the petroglyphs at Sikachi-Alyan and May rock art sites during his very first expedition to the Amur River in 1935. These estampageshave been recently found by the author in the stores of the Department of archaeology of the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) and have been identifi ed by the later Okaldnikov’s publications. These materials have the historiographic value in several aspects: the history of the study of the Amur region petroglyphs, methods of documenting of rock art in the fi rst half of the 20th century, scientifi c heritage of A.P. Okladnikov.

Key words: petroglyphs, Sikachi-Alyan, Russian Far East, A.P. Okladnikov, estampages

A. A. Faizullin (Orenburg) — Women’s Burial Pit Grave Culture in the Volga and Ural Area

The article deals with a women’s role in the cattle-breeding society in the Volga and Ural Region in the Early and Middle Bronze Age. 55 women’s burials were studied in the light of analysis of the labor efforts which were spend for the constructing funeral chambers. They are
divided into three groups: young women, mature, old. The study revealed different approaches to women’s death customs. Young women were often buried without grave goods in small barrows. Old and mature women were buried with prestige grave goods (a jewellery and priest signs) in big barrows. This difference is possibly explained with dependence of the social status from the age of the individual. Thus, archaeological, anthropological and ethnographic evidences let the author to conclude that adult women played important social role in the cattle-breeding society.

Key words: Pit Grave Culture, women’s burials, social structure, gender and age differentiation

Ancient Rome

S. S. Demina (Vladimir) — Cicero’s Thoughts about War

Cicero’s attitude to wars was extremely negative; nevertheless, he tried to formulate features of a just war. This perception was sporadic and did not bring him to making a theory, although his ideas contained a certain conceptual unity based on his views of justice. Cicero’s concept of a just war includes legitimate-ritual, motivational and behavioral aspects.

Key words: Ancient Rome, Cicero’s, war, justice, just war

N. I. Soloviyanov (Krasnoyarsk) — About Cult of the Legio III Augusta in Africa in 1st — 3rd Centuries AD

It is well-known that the greatness of such a Mediterranean power, as the Roman Empire rested on two pillars of religious people and the imperial army. The Legion III Augusta is a legion of Augustus. T. Mommzen considered him to be established by Caesar during civil wars.
During the reorganization of the Imperial army Octavian retained three legions with number III. One of them was given his name and was sent to Octavian’s personal domain. In this article the cult of this legion in Africa is discussed.

Key words: religion of the Roman army, legions, legionaries, Roman cults

Thrace. The North Black Sea Region

V. K. Peshekhonov (Moscow) — Coins of the Tracian Ruler Saratokos of Thasian Type With Silen / Krater: Historical Background

The author analyzes the information relating to the coins of the Thracian ruler Saratokos. The article describes the main groups of coins. A special attention is paid to the type of “Silenus/crater” with the inscription ΣΑΡΑΤΟ.

Key words: Thrace, Thasos, Saratokos, hemihekta

A. V. Batasova (St. Petersburg) — Colonization of the Taman Peninsula during the 6th — early 5th century BC (interim results)

The article contains an attempt of spatial analyses with the aim of settlement zones defining, which had been formed during the Greek colonization of Taman peninsula in the 6th — early 5th century BC. The paper presents a methodical approach and preliminary results, which allow give some characteristics of to the process of colonization and put further questions concerning its specific traits.

Key words: Black Sea Region, Asian Bosporus, Greek colonization, spatial analyses

A. A. Maslennikov (Moscow) — Ecological Crisis in the Bosporus?

The article is dedicated to the justification of hypotheses of some environmental crisis happened in the rural area of the Bosporus about the fi rst third of the 3rd century BC. It was a result of the depletion of the soil due to nearly a century of intensive plowing of the most fertile soil for grain crops, such as wheat, which was the main export commodity of the Bosporus.

The archaeological manifestation of this was the almost complete and practically simultaneous disappearance of so-called settlements located in the hinterland of the Kerch Peninsula and adjacent areas of the Crimea. As well as economic and military-political reasons
that environmental crisis became a part of general system crisis of the North black sea region in the middle of the third century BC.

Key words: rural area of the Bosporus, Eastern Crimea, settlements, extensive farming, paleoecology, crisis


A. J. Arutyunyan (Yerevan) — Nisibin (Mtsbin) — Mtsurk in Antique and Armenian Sources

Reigned in Great Armenia in AD 76–109/110 King Sanatruk completely concentrated his attention on the decision of the major domestic issues. First of all in Sanatruk’s activities special attention must be paid to the foundation of the town Mtsurk. Earlier in that area there used to be a pagan religious center, and after the adoption of Christianity many famous Armenian nobles were baptized in that town. The only evidence of the fact of Mtsurk building can be found in the work of Armenian historian of the 5th century AD Faustos Byuzand. Moses Khorenatsy is mistaken when he writes that the town Mtsurk — it’s the same Mtsbin (or Nisibin, according to
ancient historians) mentioned in ancient sources.

According to Claudius Ptolemy, there were at least 84 towns in ancient Armenia. Any town had its own special reasons for construction. In this aspect Mtsurk could not become an exception. We believe that in order to determine these causes it is necessary to refer to events that occurred from the 1st century BC to the fi rst half of the 1st century AD, when outstanding Roman generals Lucullus, Pompey, Crassus and Antony moved seamlessly from one Armenian capital to another (from the ancient fi rst capital of the Artashesides Artaxata to new capital Tigranakert). Thus, the road Tigranakert — Artaxata, which is mentioned in “Tabula Peutingeriana”, was practically
unprotected. Sanatruk drew a conclusion from the preceding events and as a result, he built an unassailable fortress between two cities at the junction of two rivers. It was supposed to block the road leading from both Artaxata to Tigranakert to the enemies (Romans) and had an identical purpose when the enemies (Parthians) moved in the opposite direction.

Key words: Nisibin-Mtsbin-Mtsurk, Sanatruk, Great Armenia, Rome, Arshakid Parthia

The Ancient Orient

T. V. Kornienko (Voronezh) — Gender Expression in Symbolism and Human Images in Northen Mesopotamia of Early Neolithic Epoch

This paper studies characteristic features of correlation between gender components in ideology and social life of the population of northern Mesopotamia during the transition from the Epipaleolithic to the Neolithic. Various types of source materials were used for the analysis, primarily different categories of symbolically decorated objects found in cult complexes, as well as paleoanthropological data.

Key words: early Neolithic, Northern Mesopotamia, gender symbols

V. A. Gaibov, G. A. Koshelenko, G. V. Trebeleva (Moscow) — Materials for the Archaeological Map of Northern Afghanistan Valley of the Murghab River

The article attempts to supplement the existing database of archaeological monuments of Afghanistan, based on the data presented in the famous book by V. Ball, as well as on recently published materials of the Soviet-Afghan archaeological expedition (by I. T. Kruglikova). These data are considered at a new level, using methods of remote sensing and multi-scale topographic maps of the region previously diffi cult to access for studying. The object of the research was the area of the valley of the Murgab river and its two right tributaries: Canal (Kaisar) and Kurutu Arik. Through the comparison of the complex data it’s become possible to increase signifi cantly the number of fi rmly localized monuments of different eras, as well as specify some issues of historical and geographical nature.

Key words: Afghanistan, Bactria, Merv, Nisaia, Murgab, satellite images, archaeological map

E. V. Rung (Kazan) — The Idea of Empire in the State of the Achaemenids

The article deals with the idea of Empire in the state of the Achaemenids. This idea embodied the principle of universalism, which referred to the rule of the Persian kings all around the world, over all countries and all people. The Achaemenid Kings claimed to be the rulers of the lands from one sea to another (it corresponded to the geographical representations of the ancient people who thought that the earth was surrounded on all sides by the water). The “Catalogues” of countries and people in the royal inscriptions and reliefs were also intended to strengthen the idea of Empire demonstrating its the vastness and power of the state. Finally, the idea of Empire originated from the Assyrians including some the Iranian components. The perception of their own Empire by the Persian monarchs generally corresponded to what is laid in the traditional understanding of “empire” in the modern society.

Key words: empire, ideology, Persia, Assyria, the Achaemenids

A. S. Balakhvantsev (Moscow) — Phraates I and the Mardi

The article discusses the situation in Parthia during the reign of Phraates I (ca. 176–171 BC). Based on the analysis of written and numismatic sources, it is concluded that only Hyrcania was under the Phraates’ rule before of the war with the Mardi broke out. The conquest of the Mardi was the beginning of major changes in the Arshakides’ domestic policy, that further contributed Parthia to the transformation into a world power.

Key words: Phraates I, Mardi, Hyrcania, Arsakides, Parthia


K. A. Demichev (Moscow) — Reform Efforts of the Tenth Guru Gobind Singh in the Context of Completion of the Sikh Community Militarization

The article discusses the reform efforts of the last tenth Sikh guru Gobind Singh in the context of the completion of the militarization of the Sikh community at the turn of the 17th — 18th centuries. Religious and military-political aspects of the process of militarization are
analyzed. They led to the formation of religious communities of a new type. The conclusions about the appropriate connection of militarization with the formation of an independent Sikh nationhood are made.

Key words: Punjab, Sikhism, Khalsa, militarization, guru


N. N. Makarova (Magnitogorsk) — The City of Magnitogorsk as an Object of Historical Research (To Problem Statement)

In this article the author examines the city of Magnitogorsk as a case of study for the professional historians. The author indicates the main factors ensuring the uniqueness of the city in the Chelyabinsk region and Russia and demonstrates the basic trends in the study of
the history of the city. The author comes to the conclusion that Magnitogorsk heightened the historians’ interest during the accelerated industrialization period that was driven by the complex of socio-economic and political-ideological factors, and also notes a positive trend: the surge of interest to thehistory of Magnitogorsk in 2000s.

Key words: Russian history, historiography, the Urals, Magnitogorsk

N. V. Chernova (Magnitogorsk) — German Political Emigrants in Magnitostroy during 1930s

The article reveals the peculiarities of German political emigrants’ residence in Magnitostroy. The author analyzes the living conditions, the problems of nutrition, attitude to work and pays attention to deviant behavior and relationships among the foreign and Soviet workers.

Key words: Magnitogorsk, industrialization, DENR, the Comintern, political emigrants, the USSR

O. Y. Starodubova (Magnitogorsk) — Activities of Working Journalists of Magnitogorsk during the Great Patriotic War

With the beginning of the World War II mobilization mechanisms affected all social categories of the population of the USSR. In extreme conditions of the war the every day way of life fundamentally changed the rear. The community group assisted the authorities in the
formation of the desired social behavior turned out to be working correspondents. During the war they were the means of propaganda, hard work and assistance to the front among Magnitogorsk workers.

Key words: The Great Patriotic War, working correspondents, periodicals, Magnitogorsk, social behavior, propaganda


S. S. Pigar (Sukhum) — Abkhazians Patron-Client Relationships in the 19th Century

The paper work is aimed to study a typical variant of leadership realization for the traditional mountain-Caucasian society. It was supposed to be an implementation of power relations, which involved the close cooperation of leaders and vassals and was an alternative to the bureaucratical governance structure.

Key words: Caucasus, Abkhazia, patronage, social relationships

G. N. Garustovich (Ufa) — Bashkir Land as Part of Jochi Ulus

The author considers the question of the status of the lands of Bashkortostan within the limits of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century. The chief of the tribe of Usergan — Molten-Biy, in the camp of the ruler of the Ulus of Jochi — “Khan” Batu, at the beginning of 1236,
voluntarily acknowledged his dependence on the Mongols; that’s why he was appointed as the Supreme Biy of the Bashkirs by the conquerors. The analysis of the written sources shows the territory of Bashkortostan was divided into two parts, with the border ran along the line of the Ural mountains. The area of Urals amounted to a separate Bashkir region; and the foreststeppe zone of the Urals (up to the rivers Ishim and Irtysh) were included in the Ulus of Shiban. Within the ulus Shiban Bashkir region of Western Siberia received the name “Tur”, and they managed not only by the local Bashkir biys, but also by representatives of the Golden Horde of bureaucracy (also became biys). Such administrative division was preserved until the occurrence of Bashkiria in the structure of the Russian state (16th century).

Key words: the Middle Ages, the Golden Horde, the Southern Urals, Bashkortostan, the Mongol conquest, the Ulus of Jochi, the Bashkir tribes, Ulus of Shiban, shezhere (genealogies) of Bashkirs, written sources, vassalage, tribal beys, khans labels

Yu. N. Tsyryapkina (Barnaul) — Identification markers of Russian population of Uzbekistan In Post-Soviet Time

In the article the author reveals the evolution of the main identity markers of the Russian population of Uzbekistan in the wide historical retrospective, beginning with the migration movement in Turkestan to the contemporary situation. The study focuses on methods of social
anthropology. Based on extensive fi eld research, such bases of Russian’s identity in the post-Soviet period as ethnic identity, religion, Russian language and European identity are analyzed in the article. The author concludes hat the Russians at the level of the remaining minorities in modern Uzbekistan strive to integrate into the new socio-political andsocio-cultural conditions of Uzbek society. The Russians expose to change ethnicity, loyalty to Orthodoxy, while preserving the Russian language and European identity.

Key words: Russian, identity, ethnicity, European identity, the Russian language, religion

V. V. Nikolaev (Novosibirsk) — Self-Identifi cation of Indigenous People of the Northern Altai Foothills According to All-Russian Agricultural Census of 1917

In the article on the basis of the materials of the All-Russian agricultural census of 1917 self-identifi cation of the indigenous population of the Northern Altai foothills is examined (the Kumandins, the Tubalars, the Chelkans). It is known that during the 18th — 19th centuries
there was a gradual integration of the northern Altai in the Russian political and socio-cultural space. Agrarian colonization and land improvement of the foothills of the Northern Altai, administrative changes and proselyte practices of the Russian Orthodox Church signifi cantly influenced the character of the ethnic processes among the indigenous population. The pluralism of ethnic identity connected with a number of factors is fi xed. Also fi xing of an ethnonym “the Kumandin”, and, perhaps, “the Chelkan” among part of the native population is noted.

Key words: self-identifi cation, census, the Kumandins, the Tubalars, the Chelkans

I. V. Oktyabrskaya, L. V. Krikau, E. V. Antropov (Novosibirsk) — “We Are Ukrainians, But Indicates As Russians...”: Ethnic Processes Among the Ukrainians of the Steppe Zone of Western Siberia in the 20th — Beginning of 21st century

The article discuss the history of formation of the Ukrainian community in the Steppe Zone in the South of Western Siberia. The migrants fl ow beyond the Urals formed a considerable array of Siberian Ukrainians by the early twentieth century. The most compact and numerous groups populated a vast territory of modern administrative structures the SFD, including Steppe areas of Novosibirsk region. Ukrainians accounted to 50% of the local population and became the most numerous ethnic group in the early twentieth century. Ukrainians maintained their norms of traditional culture and language for the long time. However, in the 1960s and 1970s the ethnocultural
transformation had intensifi ed because of socio-economic change, political practice of settlements joining, agricultural industrialization and change of educational standards. Active interethnic contacts and transformation of ethnic identity led to considerable decrease of the
Ukrainians in Western Siberia and formed the complicated multi-level identity.

Key words: the Ukrainians, frontiermen, Kulunda Steppe, Novosibirsk region, ethnic identity, population structure, historical memory

V. V. Nikolaev, E. V. Samushkina (Novosibirsk) — The Structure of Identity of Youth of Siberia (Based on the Survey of Novosibirsk’s Students)

The article is devoted to the study of the structure of identities of students of Novosibirsk. As a result of the analysis of empirical data, collected using questionnaires, the authors identify the value orientation of students. In the context of appeals to the past attitude of the respondents to the concept of patriotism is analyzed. This category is considered as a way of forming civil and ethnic identity. On the basis of the classical techniques applied in ethnosociology and ethnopsychology features of ethnic identification of students, their need for an ethnic affilyation, type of valuable and cultural orientations are revealed.

Key words: historical memory, ethnic identity, youth, the image of Russia, Siberia, patriotism

I. R. Atnagulov (Magnitogorsk) — Kryashen and Nagaibak Issues in Russia at the Beginning of the 21st century (Political, Academic and Public Discourses)

The problem of objective fixation of ethnic and other identities of the population has been intensively discussed since the late 1990. In the course of censuses preparation of 2002–2010, the discussion was between the political and academic communities. This mainly concerned the methodological approaches to the selection criteria of the groups called ethnic. In this paper we examine the features of viewpoint of this problem on the example of the Kryashens and nagaibaks in the light of the political, academic and public discourses.

Key words: account of ethnic structure of the population, the Kryashens, Nagaibaks



T. E. Abramzon (Magnitogorsk) — The Poem “Oni Zvuchat, Oni Likuiut” by A. Blok: The Experience of Reading (To the History of a Poetic Formula)

The article analyzes the poem “Oni zvuchat, oni likuiut” (1901) by Alexander Blok. It contains the modernistic transformation of poetic formula “Blessed who...”, which has a long history in the world literature. The uniqueness of Blok’s poetic solution is that the poet changed
both the meaning and the structure of the traditional poetic formula and created the original logical-semantic model, which denies the intention of seeking happiness on earth.

Key words: poetic formula, “Blessed who…”, poetry by A. Blok, symbolism, bliss, recoding of images

O. Yu. Kolesnikova, M. L. Skvortsova, S. V. Kharitonova (Magnitogorsk) — At the Origins of the Burgher Culture Moralistic Weeklies of I. K. Gottshed

The articles deals with the Age of Enlightenment coincided with the formation and flourishing of the periodical press. Magazines became the most effective channel for dissemination of enlightenment ideas to a broad readership. One of the most successful publishers of moralizing weeklies in Germany was I. K. Gottsched. He was the founder of weekly magazines, identified a number of problems and contributed to the consolidation of cultural forces and burgher culture emerging.

Key words: Enlightenment, Gottsched journalism, moralistic weeklies, burgher culture

К. А. Kochnova (Nizhny Novgorod) — Evening Linguistic World of A. P. Chekhov

In article the language picture of the world of A.P. Chekhov is investigated, specifics of the individual attitude realized in the writer’s language come to light. Studying of lexicosemantic system of language is carried out by means of a fi eld technique. The nuclear lexeme
differs evening in the high frequency of the use, according to the substantial characteristics of a polisemantichn, combines in the semantic structure common-language, traditional and poetic and individual and author’s values, is connected with the main categories of attitude of the writer (life and death, beauty, melancholy, loneliness).

Key words: language picture of the world of the writer, lexico-semantic field, lexeme, sema, A.P. Chekhov

P. A. Goncharov, O. V. Cherbaeva (Michurinsk) — The Past, the Present and the Future of Siberia in the Axiology of A. V. Vampilov

The article analyzed the categories of both the time and the space of the artistic world of A. Vampilov. The goal of the article is to prove the axiological signifi cance of both spatial and time figurativeness of the works of A. Vampilov. In the creative work of A. Vampilov the geographical image of Siberia was considered as both the central and the sense one. Simultaneously this image was the agile one which absorbed in itself the idealistic images of the traditional Siberia equally to the images of the urbanistic Siberia. In the creative work of A. Vampilov the appearance of the images of Siberia in the past, present and future are the refl ection of the author’s perception of the historical changes in the Siberia’s territory. They are: the idealization of the past; the childhood (the space of the memory); the negative perception of the future (the urbanistic space); the interpretation of the present Siberia as the space of the indeterminateness.

Key words: the artistic time, the artistic space, the fi gurativeness as the spatial as the time one, the chronotop, the motive of the oblivion

V. V. Tsurkan (Magnitogorsk) — The Comparison of «City» and «Country» Texts in Russian Literature of the Last Third of the 20th century

The article reveals the cultural community, as well as relations of attraction and repulsion between the “urban” and “suburban” texts of Russian literature. The author explores the sources and semantics of the models representing the image of the “dacha” in the artistic mind of A. Bitov, and Yury Trifonov, S. Sokolov, T. Tolstaya.

Key words: country the universe, “Petersburg” text, “Moscow” text, space, time


I. R. Yunusova (Ufa) — Problems of Terminology in Translation Practice (Oil and Gas Field)

The article deals with the problems of terminology in general and that of oil and gas field in particular. It is important to fi nd out the way special words are chosen to defi ne concepts. The paper gives the results of scientific terminology problems research on the problems of terminology as polysemy of terms and the problem of transferring of general words into the language for special purposes. The need for terminological standardization is emphasized. The present analysis of the vocabulary of oil and gas fi eld reveals features of the practice of translation, which implies that the translator must possess a natural language competence not only in their native language, but
also in language, which translates, as well as professional competence in the oil and gas sector.

Key words: terms, concept, oil and gas fi eld, polysemy, communication

N. V. Belenov (Samara) — About Linguistic Identity Hydronyms «Samara»

The paper attempts to identify the linguistic affi liation of hydronyms «Samara», which are found in the vast area from the Volga region to Western Europe. In the toponymic literature on the subject, there are several points of view, the most reasoned seemed to be the Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Mongolian, Turkic and Ugric version. Based on the analysis of historical sources and geographical distribution of this type hydronyms the author concludes that, at the present stage of the study, the most preferable is the hypothesis about the origin of proto-Indo-European hydronym ‘‘Samara’’.

Key words: hydronyms, Samara, toponymy

А. М. Ishegulova (Ufa) — The Concepts of «Тыуған Төйəк» (Native Land, Motherland, Country Land), «Тəбиғəт» (Nature) In Individual Language Picture of the World (On the Material of Literary Texts of Yanybaj Khammatov)

The article discusses the concepts of ‘тыуған төйəк’ (native land, native country), ‘тəбиғəт’ (nature) identifi ed in the texts of the famous Bashkir auther Yanybaj Khammatov. Concepts are viewed not only as linguistic lexical unit, but also as a cultural code which carries
national-cultural semantics and the encrypted information on the philosophical views of the author.

Key words: individual language picture of the world, cultural concepts, outlook


M. D. Bukharin (Moscow) — "The Sciense is ... Only the Other Expression of Humanism..." (A. Grunwedel's Letters to V. V. Radloff from the Collection of the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St.-Petersburg Branch )


Yu. V. Kulikova (Sankt Petersburg) — The Problem of Transition from the Antiquity to the Middle Ages


E. S. Danilov (Yaroslavl) — Revue on the J. H. Richardson, F. Santangelo's book ‘‘The Roman Historical Tradition. Regal and Republican Rome’’. Oxford, 2014. 372 p.