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The article is devoted to the analysis of cuneiform texts and ancient writers’ reports about three cities in the territory of South Azerbaijan. These cities – Parda, Karibtu and Agazu – are mentioned in the Assyrian cuneiform texts of 714–670 BC. Parda was the capital of the eastern Mannean region of Zigirtu (Asagarta–Sagartya of ancient Persian inscriptions and ancient Greek writers). After the destruction in 714 BC by the Assyrians, the city was restored and at the end of the 4th century BC became one of the fortresses of Atropatene, which ancient authors called “Phraata”. The city of Karibtu is mentioned in the request of the oracle of the god Shamash in connection with the Medes revolt of 671 BC. This city is not mentioned by ancient writers, but its name has been preserved in the form of “Kerefto”. The city of Aghazi was fi rst attested in the economic texts of the archive from the city of Gasur (or Nuzi, near modern Kirkuk) of the post-Akkadian (or Gutean period; the 22nd century BC). In 713 BC, the inhabitants of this city paid tribute to the Assyrians. Greek writers called this Atropatenian city of Aganzana, which corresponds to the modern name of the city of Zanjan.


Ancient Azerbaijan, cuneiform texts, cities of Manna, narrative tradition, cities of Atropatene.

Seldzhan Mamadzadeh

Institute of History named after A.A. Bakikhanov National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Baku, Azerbaijan

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