download PDF


The token “larva” [chrysalis] has the semantics of life and freedom (B. PasternakS. Sokolov, M. Tsvetaeva, L. Tolstoy, L. Shestov, etc.); A.J. Toynbee sees an allegory of civilization change in it. Doll is a symbol of subjection to the fate. In “The Laws” by Plato man is a puppet of the gods. The situation is perceived as unavoidable, the degree of tragedy is redused. Man-puppet is not a tragedy in the Khayyam poetry. In “The Guest at the feast of Bon” by V. Pelevin the life of samurai is a moment, just the thought of God, the doll that made puppet master. But in the existentialists sense of being a doll is the tragic collision of will and lack of freedom (L. Andreev, G. Miller, N. Taffy). Actually in the world of the dolls man is a ill fate (the pastry chef in “The Nutcracker” by E.E.A. Hoffmann). An example of the clash of will and fate is the story of Parsley. Traditional Parsley is hedonist, provocateur, boor (S. Marshak). However, in the I. Stravinsky and A. Benois interpretation the story about unrequited love of Parsley deployed to philosophizing about death and immortality. A blackamoor is lucky. A ballerina is an apple of discord. Parsley reveals the psychological depth, even instincts (G. Sviridov). Itʹs the story of the puppet soul, imaginary and true freedom. The magician returns to the slain Parsley puppet entity, but Parsley grost appears, it threatens the magician. Existential interpretation was continued in “Petrushka” by I. Elagin. There is tradition folk vitalism and sanity. A hero punishes the evil, but his strength runs out. His last monologue ends with feeling death. So, the story about puppet is variable. But it saved a multicultural universal: man is ill fate toy. Either to take or to experience the existential stress.,


Hoffman, Elagin, doll, Petrushka, Pelevin, Sokolov, Khayyam

Natalia M. Solntseva, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Akhmatova, A.N. 1998–2002: Sobranie sochineniy: v 6 t. Moscow.

Belyy, A.1990: Sochineniya: v 2 t. Moscow.

Benua, A.N., 1993: Moi vospominaniya: v 2 t. Moscow.

Elagin, I.V. 1998: Sobranie sochineniy: v 2 t. Moscow.

Hofman, E.Т.А. 2011: Shchelkunchik i myshinyy korol. Saint-Petersburg.

Khayyam, O. 1972: Rubai. Moscow.

Mandelshtam, N.Ya. 2014: Sobranie sochineniy: v 2 t. Ekaterinburg.

Miller, G. 1995: Tropik raka. Tropik Kozeroga. Chyernaya vesna. Moscow.

Nizhinskaya, R. 2005: Vatslav Nizhinskiy. Moscow.

Pasternak, B.L. 1988: Izbrannoe: v 2 t. Moscow.

Pushkin, A.S. 1959–1967: Sobranie sochineniy: v 10 t. Moscow.

Sokolov, S. 2007: Trevozhnaya kukolka. Saint-Petersburg.

Tarho-Godi, A.A., Losev, A.F. 1999: Grecheskaya kultura v mifakh,simvolakh i terminakh. Saint-Petersburg.

Tolstoy, L.N. 2000: Zapisnye knizhki. Moscow.

Toynbi, A. Dzh. 1995: Tsivilizatsiya pered sudom istorii. Saint-Petersburg.

Tsvetaeva, M. 2000: Knigi stikhov. Moscow.

Uelch, D. 2000: Kukly,

Voloshin, M.A. 2003–2015: Sobranie sochineniy: v 10 t. Moscow.